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Library of Congress > LC Online Catalog > Search/Browse Help > Search Examples > Numbers Found in LC Online Catalog Records
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Types of Numbers Found in LC Online Catalog Records

Records in the LC Online Catalog contain many types of numbers, including:

Identifiers Assigned by Library of Congress

LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number)

LCCNs are record identifiers assigned by the Library of Congress to bibliographic and authority records. First established when the Library began printing catalog cards in 1898, these numbers are assigned to records created when materials arrive at the Library. The Library also offers U.S. book publishers the service of providing LCCNs for their prepublication titles through the Preassigned Control Number program and to qualified publishers through the Cataloging in Publication program. LCCNs are also assigned to serials cataloged as part of the cooperative CONSER program and to contributed name authority records. Assignment of an LCCN by the Library does not automatically ensure that a publication will be selected for Library's collections.

LCCN structure includes three components: a prefix, year, and serial number. Prefixes may be blank, or they may contain from one to three lowercase alphabetic characters (maintained in a controlled list). Year information is either two or four digits — two digits for LCCNs assigned through 2000, four digits for LCCNs assigned 2001 and later. LCCN serial numbers contain six digits. LCCNs created before 2001 also contain suffix and revision information.

Sample LCCNs (1898-2000) Sample LCCNs (beginning 2001)
Original displayCurrent displayCurrent display
89-45689000456)2001001114
gm 71-2450gm 71002450mm2002084896
n 79-18774n 79018774sh2006006990

LCCN Permalinks allow you to link to bibliographic records in the LC Online Catalog that contain an LCCN and to authority records in LC Authorities. These identifiers are constructed by using the URL https://lccn.loc.gov/ followed by the LCCN -- with variations in LCCN spacing and punctuation normalized by the info:lccn specification.

When searching for LCCNs, make sure to omit any hyphens and, if the portion of the LCCN following hyphen is less than six digits, pad with digits with leading zeros. Sample searches can be found on the Search Examples page.

To search for LCCNs by keyword, consider the LCCN prefix and the year/serial number to be separate "words." LCCN searches can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. LCCN keyword searches are available through:

  • Keyword (ALL) option of Keyword Search, using quotation marks around the number if the LCCN has a prefix followed by a space
  • Keyword Anywhere (GKEY), LC Control No/LCCN (K010), or LCCN-ISBN-ISSN (KNUM) options of Advanced Search
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using the specific keyword field index code "K010" or the broader keyword number search code "KNUM"

To search for LCCNs using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. LCCN left-match searches are available through:

  • Standard Numbers (LCCN-ISBN-ISSN) option of Browse
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using one of the following left-match field index codes: "010A" (to search valid LCCNs), "010Z" (to search cancelled LCCNs), "LCCN" (to search both valid and cancelled LCCNs), or the broader number search code "STNO"

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LC Call Numbers (Classified and Shelving Numbers)

Items in the Library of Congress permanent collections are classified according to the LC Classification schedules or arranged by local shelf numbers. These numbers identify a specific copy of an item and indicate its relation shelf location with the Library's collections. While specific call number and Library location information for items in the Library's collections is maintained in holdings data associated with each bibliographic record, call number information is also found in bibliographic records.

To search for LC classified call numbers and shelving numbers by keyword, retain punctuation (but note that periods, parentheses, and hyphens will break your call number into separate "words"). Search examples shows how call numbers can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. LCCN keyword searches are available through:

To search for LC classified call numbers and shelving numbers using browse and left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation is available. LC call number and shelving number left-match searches are only available for bibliographic records through:

  • CALL NUMBERS (LC class no.) and CALL NUMBERS (Other shelving no.) options of Browse, for browsable lists of items based on call number holdings data. Wild cards are not available.
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using one of the following left-match field index codes for classified call numbers and many shelf numbers: "0500", "0510" (for copies), or "05XX" and "05UT"(for shelflist-like sorting). Call number information in field 090 is not searchable using left-match index codes. Wild cards are available.

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LC Handles (for Digital Content)

To persistently identify and manage electronic resources created and maintained by the Library of Congress, the Library assigns permanent identifiers, known as "handles," to this digital content. Handles ensure long-term, persistent resolution (or redirection) to appropriate Library URLs when content moves or search links change.

Library handles are found in the Links fields of records. These identifiers begin with the URL http://hdl.loc.gov followed by data that uniquely identifies the resource.

To search for LC handles by keyword, use part or all of the URL in your query (note that URL punctuation such as slashes, hyphens, and underscores break the URL into separate "words"). Search examples show how these identifiers can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. Searches are available through:

  • Keyword (ALL) option of Keyword Search
  • Electronic Access (KURL) or Holdings Keyword (HKEY) options of Advanced Search
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using specific keyword field index codes "K856" (the primary location for bibliographic record URLs), the collective keyword search code "KURL" (for handles found in any URL subfield in a bibliographic record), or "H856" or "HKEY" for handles found in holdings data.

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International and National Identifiers

ISBN (International Standard Book Number)

ISBN are internationally-recognized product identifiers used by publishers, libraries, internet retailers, and the book trade to identify and manage text-based monographs. These numbers incorporate information identifying the ISBN registrant as well as the specific title, edition, and format of a publication. Until 2006, ISBNs were 10 digits long; in January 2007, these numbers expanded to 13 digits -- calculated using a specific mathematical formula and compatible with the 13-digit number used in barcodes.

ISBNs included LC Online Catalog records reflect the information available at the time of cataloging; do not expect, therefore, that all ISBNs associated with every format of the title will be searchable in the Catalog. While ISBNs are often displayed using hyphens, punctuation is removed when entering ISBNs in LC records. In addition, ISBNs often include parenthetical qualifying information about the format associated with the ISBN. Sample searches can be found on the Search Examples page.

To search for ISBNs by keyword, make sure to omit any hyphens and spaces. Note that 10- and 13-digit ISBN cannot be searched interchangeably in keyword searches. ISBN searches can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. ISBN keyword searches are available through:

  • Keyword (ALL) option of Keyword Search
  • Keyword Anywhere (GKEY) or LCCN-ISBN-ISSN (KNUM) options of Advanced Search
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using the specific keyword field index code "K020", the collective keyword search code "KISB" for ISBNs found in any field in the record, or one of the broader keyword number search codes "KISN" or "KNUM"

To search for ISBNs using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. ISBN left-match searches are available through:

  • Standard Numbers (LCCN-ISBN-ISSN) option of Browse; this search automatically handles both 10- or 13-digit ISBN and removes any hyphens included in your search string
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using one of the following left-match field index codes: "020N" (to search valid ISBNs), "020R" (to search cancelled ISBNs), "ISBL" (to search both valid and cancelled ISBNs), or the broader number search code "STNO"

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ISMN (International Standard Music Number)

ISMN are unique internationally-recognized identifiers used by publishers, libraries, internet retailers, and the music trade to identify and manage notated music. Until 2007, ISMNs were 10 digits long; in January 2008, these numbers expanded to 13 digits -- calculated using a specific mathematical formula and compatible with the 13-digit number used in barcodes.

ISMNs included LC Online Catalog records reflect the information available at the time of cataloging. Sample searches can be found on the Search Examples page.

To search for ISMNs by keyword, make sure to omit any punctuation. Note that 10- and 13-digit ISBN cannot be searched interchangeably in keyword searches. ISMN searches can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. ISMN keyword searches are available through:

  • Keyword (ALL) option of Keyword Search
  • Keyword Anywhere (GKEY) option of Advanced Search
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using the specific keyword field index code "K024", the collective keyword search code "KISB" for ISMNs found in any field in the record, or one of the broader keyword number search codes "KISN" or "KNUM"

To search for ISMNs using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. ISMN left-match searches are available through:

  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using one of the following left-match field index codes: "024A" (to search valid ISMNs), "024Z" (to search cancelled ISMNs), or "OSIN" (to search both valid and cancelled ISMNs)

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ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)

ISSN are internationally-recognized identifiers used by publishers, libraries, internet retailers, and the journal and newspaper trade to identify and manage serials. These numbers are 8 digits long (four number, hyphen, four numbers) and are assigned by a network of over 60 ISSN centers worldwide coordinated by the International Center located in Paris (the U.S. ISSN Center is part of the Library of Congress).

In 2007, a new linking ISSN was added to the ISSN standard. This ISSN-L creates a single identifier to collocate ISSN assigned to different media versions of the same work.

ISSNs included LC Online Catalog records reflect the information available at the time of cataloging. Sample searches can be found on the Search Examples page.

To search for ISSNs by keyword, make sure to retain the hyphen. ISSN searches can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. ISSN keyword searches are available through:

  • Keyword (ALL) option of Keyword Search
  • Keyword Anywhere (GKEY) or LCCN-ISBN-ISSN (KNUM) options of Advanced Search
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using the specific keyword field index codes "K022" or "KISS", the collective keyword search code "KISL" for ISSNs found in any field in the record, or one of the broader keyword number search codes "KISN" or "KNUM"

To search for ISSNs using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number and retain the hyphen in your search. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. ISSN left-match searches are available through:

  • Standard Numbers (LCCN-ISBN-ISSN) option of Browse
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using one of the following left-match field index codes: "022A" (to search valid ISSNs), "022Z" (to search cancelled ISSNs), "ISSL" (to search valid, incorrect, and cancelled ISBNs), or the broader number search code "STNO".

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DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification Number)

The Dewey Decimal Classification System (DDC) is a general knowledge organization tool created by Melvil Dewey in 1873. Continuously revised, DDC is currently published by OCLC Online Computer Library Center.

While many LC Online Catalog book records contain Dewey Decimal numbers, the majority do not. The Library assigns Dewey numbers to nearly all U.S. trade imprints, including all titles cataloged in the Cataloging in Publication (CIP) program, and to many books in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. Dewey numbers are not displayed on Brief Records; they can be seen, however, on Full Record displays and in field 082 of the MARC Tags display.

To search for Dewey class numbers by keyword, retain punctuation (but note that periods, apostrophes, parentheses, and punctuation marks will break your DDC number into separate "words"). Sample searches can be found on the Search Examples page. These searches can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. DDC keyword searches are available through:

To search for Dewey class numbers using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. DDC left-match searches are available through:

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SuDoc (U.S. Superintendent of Documents Number)

The Superintendent of Documents Classification (SuDoc) is a classification system developed in the office of the Superintendent of Documents of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) at the turn of the 20th century, growing from GPO's need to organize a large and rapidly growing mass of Government publications. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that SuDoc classification of federal government agencies organization remains current with the constant creation and relocation of agencies and bureaus.

SuDoc numbers are not displayed on Brief Records; they can be seen, however, on Full Record displays and in field 086 of the MARC Tags display.

To search for SuDoc numbers by keyword, retain punctuation (but note that periods, apostrophes, parentheses, and punctuation marks will break your SuDoc number into separate "words"). Sample searches can be found on the Search Examples page. These searches can be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. SuDoc keyword searches are available through:

To search for SuDoc numbers using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. SuDoc left-match searches are available through:

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DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

DOIs are digital identifiers that persistently identify object of intellectual property. These identifiers are increasingly found on articles in electronic journals, conference proceedings, and ebooks. ISBNs, ISSNs, and other standard identifiers can be embedded in DOI URLs. DOIs included LC Online Catalog records reflect the information available at the time of cataloging.

To search for DOIs by keyword, retain punctuation (but note that periods, apostrophes, parentheses, and punctuation marks will break your SuDoc number into separate "words"). Search truncation and wild cards are available. DOI keyword searches are available through:

  • Keyword (ALL) option of Keyword Search
  • Keyword Anywhere (GKEY) option of Advanced Search
  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using the specific keyword field index code "K024", the collective keyword search code "KISB" for DOIs found in any field in the record, or one of the broader keyword number search codes "KISN" or "KNUM"

To search for DOIs using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. DOI left-match searches are available through:

  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using the one of the following left-match field index codes: "024A" (to search valid DOIs), "024Z" (to search cancelled DOIs), or "OSIN" (to search both valid and cancelled DOIs)

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Other Numbers

Mathematical coded geographic data

Records for maps, globes, charts, and other cartographic material contain mathematical data for scale, projections, and bounding coordinates. This geographic information is found in both coded and textual form in different fields of map records (field 034 for codes, fields 255 or 507 for text).

To search for mathematical coded geographic data by keyword, retain punctuation (but note that periods, apostrophes, parentheses, and punctuation marks will break your number into separate "words"). Search truncation and wild cards are available. System number keyword searches are available through:

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Other System Numbers

Records in the LC Online Catalog may originate in other cataloging databases, both at LC and other institutions (such as OCLC and the National Library of Medicine). While record numbers from systems other than the LC Online Catalog can look similar to unprefixed LCCNs, these numbers should be prefixed by a MARC organizational code followed by the database record number. For example, "(DNLM)101543064" or "(AuCNL)anb64207459"

To search for system numbers by keyword, retain punctuation (but note that periods, apostrophes, parentheses, and punctuation marks will break your number into separate "words"). Search truncation and wild cards are available. System number keyword searches are available through:

To search for system numbers using left-match searches, enter your search term beginning with the left-most part of the number. These searches cannot be combined with searches for data found in other fields of the record. Search truncation and wild cards are available. System number left-match searches are available through:

  • The EXPERT option of Keyword Search, using one of the following left-match field index codes: "035A" (to search valid system numbers), "035Z" (to search cancelled system numbers), or "SYSN" (to search both valid and cancelled system numbers)

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